psychosis

28
NOV
2014

Fear of Mental Illness

The fear behind mental illness reflects the nature of fear itself: We fear what we don’t know. We can never truly know what is happening inside the mind of another person. We as people follow fixed rules most of the time. Drive through an intersection when the light is green. Wear some amount of clothing outdoors. Don’t cross the double yellow line. So many rules.

When rules are broken, it is jarring to us as bystanders. Perhaps that rule breaker is innovative. Perhaps that rule breaker is a genius. Or perhaps that rule breaker is sick. The more bizarre the behavior, as in something so unorthodox that we cannot construct a rationale to make the behavior make sense, the scarier it is. That person no longer fits the parameters of normal, and thus cannot be understood. Except they can be understood. Once the parameters are broadened, and we understand what is happening inside the mind of a “crazy” person, then they become just as human as anyone.

The typical example is a psychotic man. They may do “strange” or bizarre things. People are afraid of them. They may mumble to themselves all day long, or talk to people that aren’t there. They might run around naked. They might hide in unusual places. These activities don’t seem “rational” by traditional standards. We can’t understand it, and the easiest label is “crazy.” By categorizing these people as crazy, we know they’re not us. And yet with that comes stigma, because there is still no understanding in that label.

The way to destigmatize these conditions is not just to educate the public that these are people with illnesses, but to take it a step further and understand the process that led to them doing this.

An individual with psychosis (schizophrenia, for example) is having a break from reality. That is a definition for psychosis. This might involve hearing things that aren’t there (auditory hallucinations), having paranoia or bizarre thoughts (such as that aliens will be imbuing them with special powers). There are commonly occurring forms of psychosis, and people with psychotic symptoms often fit into one of these categories.

How does this happen? The short answer is it’s a brain malfunction, and they are thinking things that are fundamentally disconnected from reality. Some paranoid beliefs or delusions might pop into their heads. This is like what happens in a dream, when you know something without having any idea why you know it.

If you could imagine hearing a voice that no one else hears which whispers in your ear, making you question everyone and everything you trust, then you might start to understand the difficulties of someone with psychosis. I myself can only imagine, having never lived with it myself.

So this brain malfunction leads to this false information, until they don’t know what’s true and what isn’t. Within this world of misinformation, though, they’re acting as best they can. If the voice is telling them they are in danger, they might strike out at anyone approaching them. This is not because they’re evil, but to protect themselves. I once had a patient who stripped off his clothes because his voice told him it would help him outrun the devil. He believed it. It’s often hard, even if they know it’s not true, to completely discount this false information they are getting. Even worse than our attempts to filter mass media messages about what we should buy or think, the false information in someone with psychosis is coming from their own brains. It’s hard to learn to NOT trust yourself. That’s why they need our help and understanding.  When we can understand what’s happening, then it’s easier to remember they are people.

Psychosis feels especially scary since there appears to be a level of unpredictability, and thus dangerousness. Research has never shown psychotic individuals to be more violent than the general population. But we’ll get to more on understanding the nature of violence in an upcoming post.

19
SEP
2013

Psychotic vs. Psychopathic

They aren’t the same. Going back to at least Hitchcock (one of my faves), who brought the muddy term “psycho” into the public psyche, conflated the definitions as if all are violent, and all “crazy” is crazy.

I’m sure there are briefer answers out there for those wondering what’s the difference between psychotic and psychopathic. And even though SRSLY made it into the OED because of its widespread use, lay inaccurate uses of the term psychotic will likely not.

Briefly in discussing how we got here, the words are interchanged because they sound alike, and are used commonly to describe someone “out of control,” often in an unpredictable or dangerous way.  In a way that is accurate for both.

Psychotic refers to someone who has detached from reality in a severe way that the common person would believe they are ill. Common examples of psychotic disorders include schizophrenia, schizoaffective (kind of schizophrenia and bipolar in one). People with psychosis can have hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren’t there), delusions (believing things that are known to be false or fantastical, like aliens are controlling their mind through a chip), paranoia (belief others might be following or trying to hurt them), magical thinking (believing they have special powers or could control things that they cannot), or ideas of reference (believing TV or commercials has special messages inlaid just for them personally). Now there are some mimics for any of these, so a single symptom shouldn’t be taken as proof of a condition, but instead the whole picture examined by a professional. Even then many professionals can get it wrong. We do the best with the information we have available.

People with psychotic disorders seem scary because their break from reality can make them unpredictable. Research evidence is quite mixed as to whether they are more dangerous than anyone else. Aside from some individuals who make headlines in terrible ways, on average they probably are not more dangerous than anyone else.

Psychopathic refers to someone without a conscience, who exists on a spectrum from your con man (self-involved, uses others for own benefit, not prone to violence) to the serial killer (predatory, gets aroused by hurting people physically or causing suffering). Psychopaths are scary because they seemingly have no limits to what they might do, including hurting others, just for their own benefit or enjoyment. If you want a bit more detailed discussion about psychopaths, see my posting here regarding Walter White and Breaking Bad.

Is it possible for someone to be BOTH psychotic and psychopathic? Unfortunately, it is. That raises all kinds of other topics, and I’ll leave that for my fictional writing.

Is being a psychopath a mental illness? That is an area of debate, both between mental health professionals, and between government/social services individuals and mental health professionals. Attributing it to an illness lessens the idea of culpability and choice, and directs thinking towards treatment and rehabilitation (of which there is little evidence that much works, though there are some small projects out there that might). Not attributing it to a mental illness or even acknowledging the lack of treatment options means the intervention of choice is containment (usually in prison), which raises all kinds of larger questions – should it be the crime that leads to containment? Can professionals feasibly identify psychopaths and identify those who can’t improve? A lot of controversy has arisen regarding the overuse of the PCL-R (a tool used to measure psychopathy), and that misidentified people might be incarcerated indefinitely. The UK has had an interesting experiment with all of this, with the government wanting psychiatrists to treat dangerous individuals with personality disorders. The psychiatrists didn’t want to do it, so the government forced the issue, creating their own name of DSPD (Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder), and mandating that psychiatrists intervene. It’s an interesting social experiment, and continues to raise questions and controversy.

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